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ASQ Contents & Abstracts Past Issues



 

2014

 ASQ 36.1

Contents 

Editor’s Note        4

Articles

Turkey and Iran: Between Friendly Competition and Fierce Rivalry       6

S. Gülden Ayman

Lost in Non-Translation: Politics of Misrepresenting Arabs        27

Sally Gomaa and Chad Raymond

Egypt’s Age of Transition: Unintentional Cosmopolitanism during the

Reign of Muhammad ‘Alī (1805-1848)         43

Marwa El Ashmouni and Katharine Bartsch

 

Book Reviews

Mervat F. HatemLiterature, Gender, and Nation-Building in
Nineteenth-Century Egypt: The Life and Works of ‘A’isha Taymur
         75

Ariella Azoulay and Adi Ophir. The One-State Condition: Occupation
and Democracy in Israel/Palestine
 78

Books in Brief

Dan Tschirgi, Walid Kazziha, and Sean F. McMahon (eds.).
Egypt’s Tahrir Revolution 82

Nur MasalhaThe Zionist Bible: Biblical Precedent, Colonialism,
and the Erasure of Memory
               83

Guidelines for Authors       85

Subscriptions       86

 

 Abstracts

TURKEY AND IRAN: BETWEEN FRIENDLY COMPETITION AND FIERCE RIVALRY

 S. Gülden Ayman

Abstract: The article starts by stressing the distinctive features of Turkish-Iranian relations. It argues that in order to understand the different stages in Turkish-Iranian relations one needs to define the fine line between competition and rivalry, which are usually used interchangeably. It explains the common concerns that united and fostered cooperation between Turkey and Iran as well as the differences that persisted after the US invasion of Iraq. Delineating under what sort of conditions Turkey emerged as a competitor in Iraq, it evaluates the main instruments Ankara and Tehran employed in their efforts to affect the future of that country. In an effort to explain why this competition heightened, carrying the risk of transforming the two countries’ relationship to a rivalry, it elaborates on both countries’ approaches and concerns vis-à-vis Syria and the role of the US in shaping the two countries’ interactions.

Keywords: Turkish-Iranian relations, Turkish-Iranian cooperation, Syrian conflict, Kurdish question, US Middle East policy, future of Iraq

 

Lost In Non-Translation:  Politics of Misrepresenting Arabs

Sally Gomaa and Chad Raymond

Abstract: Undergraduate college students in the USA often encounter the Arab Middle East through novels translated into English. These novels are often presented by instructors and understood by students as stylized but accurate depictions of Arab societies as they currently exist. This article argues that the extremely limited number of translated Arabic novels that have made their way into American classrooms perpetuate stereotypes about Arab societies. These novels present students with themes that are often ahistorical and infused with violence, misogyny, and religious fanaticism. Although students may be highly interested in learning about Arab societies, the literary content they come across encourages affective rather than critical or complex responses.

Keywords: literature, novel, translation, masculinity, war, women

 

Egypt’s Age of Transition: Unintentional Cosmopolitanism during the Reign of Muhammad ‘Alī (1805-1848)

 Marwa El Ashmouni and Katharine Bartsch

Abstract: This article examines cosmopolitanism during the reign of Muhammad ‘Alī whose architectural patronage was intertwined with his political aspirations for independence and reform. The Alabaster Mosque and Shubra Palace were prominent in the image of the nascent state and they serve as potent examples of the Pasha’s openness to diverse ideas (which was highly controlled) and his cultivation of multiple loyalties in the effort to consolidate power. Connecting Muhammad ‘Alī’s “enframing of modernity,” posited by Timothy Mitchell in Colonising Egypt (1988), with Ulrich Beck’s articulation of “unintentional cosmopolitanism,” in The Cosmopolitan Vision (2006), these projects are interpreted as a “side-effect” of the Pasha’s efforts to materialize both national and imperial aspirations. This cosmopolitan lens provides a timely insight into the complex cultural encounters that have shaped Egyptian history, given the recent protests against existing regimes and imperialist forces of global capitalism; forces which, similarly, thwarted ‘Alī’s endeavours in the nineteenth century.

Keywords: Egypt, cosmopolitanism, Muhammad ‘Alī, Alabaster Mosque, Shubra Palace, enframing of modernity

 

 2013

ASQ 35.4 (December 2013)

Contents

In Memoriam: Alixa Naff (1919-2013)           340

Articles

The Palestinian Spring that Was Not: The Youth and Political Activism in the Occupied Palestinian Territories              343

Jacob Høigilt

Political Engagement: The Palestinian Confessional Genre       360

Salam Mir

Edward al-Kharrat, a Pioneer of Innovative Narrative Prose Writing:  Beginnings            378

Yaseen Kittani

The Poetic Voices of Ahmad Abd al-Mu’ti Hijazi: 1950-2011   394

Waed Athamneh

Book Reviews

Ghada Talhami. Historical Dictionary of Women in the Middle East and North Africa 415

Kai Hafez. Radicalism and Political Reform in the Islamic and Western Worlds                416

Books in Brief

Galal Amin. Whatever Happened to the Egyptian Revolution?               419

Amaney A. Jamal. Of Empires and Citizens: Pro-American Democracy or No Democracy At All?   420

Books Received 2012-13              423

Guidelines for Authors       428

Subscriptions       429

 Abstracts

The Palestinian Spring that Was Not: The Youth and Political Activism in the Occupied Palestinian Territories 

Jacob Høigilt

 Abstract: This article explains the current political role of the Palestinian youth by comparing the period shortly before the First and Second Intifadas with the current situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). It critically interrogates the oft-repeated assertion that the Palestinian youth are characterized by political anomie, showing that the political role of the youth in the OPT is constrained by three factors: Israeli occupation, oppression by Fatah and Hamas, and the political paralysis resulting from the split between these two dominant political organizations. However, the present youth activism challenges the policies of both Fatah and Hamas, and draws strength from its utilization of international cooperation and its popular practices. While it is still small, this youthful activism displays a determination, clear-headedness and independence that contrast with the political culture in the dominant factions of Palestinian politics.

 

Political Engagement:  The Palestinian Confessional Genre

Salam Mir

Abstract: The personal struggle and creative achievement of Fadwa Tuqan (1917-2003), one of the most celebrated poets in the Arab world, signify the plight of the Palestinian people in the twentieth century. Her autobiography, A Mountainous Journey, An Autobiography, integrates the personal and collective struggle within the context of Arab-Muslim history. This article will explore the established poet’s shift to the confessional genre as the Palestinian Muslim woman writer investigates the historical events that befell her people. Inspired by “Poets of Resistance,” I argue that the underpinnings of Tuqan’s investigation of the Arab-Muslim tradition proffer an authentic, commanding voice that constructs an alternative history, challenging the dominant patriarchal paradigms. What emerges is a singular feminine voice that forges an identity that goes beyond the nightmare of history. In both the poetry and personal memoir, Tuqan’s career and groundbreaking voice signify an early empowerment of women agents in the cultural production of the Arab-Muslim world.

 

Edward al-Kharrat, a Pioneer of Innovative Narrative Prose Writing: Beginnings

Yaseen Kittani

 Abstract: This study deals with the short stories of Edward al-Kharrat (b. 1926) during the early stages of his writing career, which officially began at the end of the 1950s. The article will deal with the atmosphere, the contents and the novel aspects of his writing as reflected in his first three story collections, Hitan aliya (High Walls, 1959), Saat al-kibriyaa (Hours of Pride, 1972) and Mahattat al-sikka al-hadeed (The Train Station, 1955-84), against the background of the changes that were taking place in the Arab world at the time, as well as changes that occurred in the concepts and functions of literature and in the strategies of narration.

In his move away from traditional narratives that were represented at that time by the novelist Naguib Mahfouz (1911-2006), al-Kharrat’s stories tended more and more to delve into the depths of the soul and to focus on existentialist and metaphysical issues, and, as a result, he was forced into changing his storytelling strategies and reducing external narratives in favor of introspection, dreams and imagination, as well as using language that relied on metaphor and attained a nearly poetic character. All these elements together contributed to convulsing “reality,” which in al-Kharrat’s writings became different, discontinuous and unclear.

 

The Poetic Voices of Ahmad Abd al-Mu’ti Hijazi: 1950-2011

Waed Athamneh

Abstract: This article examines the poetic voices of Egyptian poet Ahmad Abd al-Mu’ti Hijazi in five representative poems written between 1950 and 2011. It investigates the role of major political events in the Arab world on his trajectory and poetic voice. The article argues that Hijazi changes his poetic voice in relation to the status quo in Egypt. The article concludes that these voices conflict and clash with one another. Hijazi publishes a collection of poetry after the eruption of the Egyptian Revolution in January 2011, to inspire his people, protest against Mubarak’s regime, and regain his poetic voice.

ASQ 35.3 (Summer 2013)

Guest Editor’s Note: Perspectives on the Arab Uprisings

Tareq Y. Ismael

ARTICLES

The Arab Spring and the Uncivil State

Jacqueline S. Ismael and Shereen T. Ismael

Abstract: This article examines the ongoing Arab Spring uprisings. The Arab Spring is characterized as a fundamental challenge to the postcolonial political order of the Arab world. The postcolonial Arab world has been defined by its oppressive nature and its subjugation within the international system. This autocratic and peripheral order represents the political legacy of colonial rule, where the postcolonial regimes inherited and refined the repressive techniques of the colonial regimes while, owing to international developments, reinforcing their subjugated status within the international system. The Arab Spring has, thus, represented an attempt to chart an independent path in Arab politics, marked by efforts towards democracy and civil rights. The successes and failures of the Arab Spring are critically evaluated, paying special attention to the role played by Islamist political actors. Beyond an evaluation of the domestic factors behind the various protests, the regional significance of the uprisings is evaluated, providing discussion of counterrevolutionary forces and political-sectarian developments.

Keywords: Arab Spring, uncivil state, democratization, Middle East politics

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Egypt: Revolutionary Process and Global Capitalist Crisis

Ibrahim G. Aoudé

Abstract: The upheaval that has swept the Arab world, beginning in December 2010, reached Egypt on January 25, 2011. The article argues that capitalist globalization and ultimately the 2008 global financial crisis were main causes of the uprising. The Mubarak regime’s privatization schemes exacerbated poverty and widened the already huge gap between rich and poor. Mubarak employed repression to ensure that no effective political opposition would materialize to challenge his authoritarian rule and crony capitalism. Strikes and demonstrations beginning in 2006 and the lead up to the uprising demonstrated that the fight for democracy and economic justice had been intertwined. The ouster of Mubarak has not improved the economic situation for the majority of the population and authoritarian rule remained under the military and since the election of the Islamist President Morsi. Popular resistance continues against the Islamists in power to bring about a secular regime that would establish democracy and economic justice.

Keywords: Muslim Brothers, trajectories of resistance, Infitah, privatization, Arab upheaval, global capitalism

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The United States and the Arab Spring: The Dynamics of Political Engineering

Gamal M. Selim

Abstract: This article purports to examine the role of the United States in the outbreak of the Arab Spring and the course of its subsequent paths. The main argument of this article is that the Arab Spring represented a major strategic surprise to the United States. It did not plan or facilitate the Arab Spring as the Tunisian, Egyptian, Yemeni and Bahraini regimes were performing to the best satisfaction of American interests in the Arab world. As the Arab Spring carried with it threats to American regional interests, the United States moved to secure its interests by steering Arab uprisings towards courses of action which best suit these interests.

Keywords: Arab Spring, the United States, strategic surprise, democracy-promotion, foreign aid, military intervention, containment, counter-revolution

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Social Movement Theory and the Onset of the Popular Uprising in Syria

Reinoud Leenders

Abstract: This article takes stock of my attempt to scrutinize the onset of the Syrian uprising

with the help of some key analytical concepts derived from social movement theory, including “opportunity” and “threat,” “social networks,” “repertoires of contention,” “framing,” and “diffusion.” These tools allow me to identify and disentangle the mechanisms of early mobilization and the uprising and explain why they commenced in relatively peripheral areas. Social networks and framing processes are argued to have been key in mobilization, by transmitting opportunities derived from the “Arab Spring,” by mediating the nexus between repression and mobilization, by creating and feeding a rich new repertoire of defiant protest acts and claims-making, and by aiding the diffusion or agglomeration of mobilization throughout the country.

Keywords: social movement theory, social networks, social mobilization, “Arab Spring”

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Unusual Suspects: “Ultras” as Political Actors in the Egyptian Revolution

Robert Woltering

Abstract: The Egyptian revolution that started on January 25 engaged many people who theretofore had not been considered political actors. Among them were the Ultras, a particular group of football fans who are widely credited to have played a part in the more physical aspects of the uprising. In this article the Ultras are studied by means of an analysis of their own written material, their internet presence, and fieldwork conducted in Cairo. It is argued that the Ultras have quite naturally developed into a revolutionary social movement.

Keywords: Egypt, Arab Spring, January 25 revolution, Ultras, social movement, street politics

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The Arab Upheavals and the Turkish Perception vis-à-vis the West

S. Gülden Ayman

Abstract: The article argues that Turkey’s perception of the West has been heavily influenced by its idealized identity. After evaluating the circumstances under which this idealized identity began to weaken, it shows how the images of the US and Europe have started to get compartmentalized and Israel separated from the image of the West. The article explains the relationship between the continuing process redefining Turkey’s “personal identity” and its growing interest in the Middle East. The transformation process that Turkey is passing through is critically important in understanding the way in which Turkey has been affected by the upheavals and is reacting to the new developments in the region. In this vein the article highlights the interaction between power considerations and aspirations to re-define identity at home and abroad.

Keywords: Turkish foreign policy, state identity, identity change, foreign policy roles, Arab upheavals, AKP’s foreign policy

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BOOK REVIEWS

Hoda ElsaddaGender, Nation, and the Arabic Novel: Egypt 1892-2008

Leila AhmedA Quiet Revolution: The Veil’s Resurgence, from the Middle East to America

 

BOOKS IN BRIEF

Abdul-Haq Al-Ani and Tariq Al-AniGenocide in Iraq: The Case Against the UN Security Council and Member States

Bouthaina ShaabanDamascus Diary: An Inside Account of Hafez al-Assad’s Peace Diplomacy, 1990-2000

Nadje Al-Ali and Deborah Al-Najjar. Editors. We Are Iraqis: Aesthetics and Politics in Time of War

Nadia Abu El-Haj. The Genealogical Science: The Search for Jewish Origins and the Politics of Epistemology

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Arab Studies Quarterly ASQ 35.2 Spring 2013

ARTICLES

Community Engagement from the Margin: Zionism and the Case of the Palestinian Student Movement in the Israeli Universities

Ibrahim Makkawi

Abstract: The recently emerging concept of community engagement is better conceived as a context dependent concept. However, when examining the case of native communities living in colonial situations, community engagement by universities of the colonial authorities fail to capture the level of grassroots organizing among students of the colonized communities as a form of community engagement, albeit community engagement from the margin. The Palestinian community in Israel, lives in a colonial situation in its own homeland where the Israeli universities have been established as an integral part of the Zionist colonial project in Palestine. As the Palestinian formal educational system, hegemonic and identity blurring, the Palestinian Student Movement in the Israeli universities is conceived as a grassroots form of community engagement intending to reconstruct and reassert a shared sense of collective-national identity among the Palestinian students within the Israel campuses. Furthermore, Palestinian student activists are involved in community grassroots organizing and action within their own home communities and places of residence. This form of grassroots organizing and political action by members of colonized communities, calls our attention to re-conceptualization of the conventional understanding of the concept of university-community engagement.

Keywords: Palestinians in Israel, Student Movement, community engagement, colonial education, Zionism

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Palestinian Literature: Occupation and Exile

Salam Mir

Abstract

This article explores the origins of Palestinian literature vis-à-vis the historical, political and literary backgrounds of Palestine. It argues that understanding the forces that informed Palestinian writers is necessary to appreciate this literature. From the British Mandate to 1948 and its aftermath to the 1967 War and the continued Occupation, the article looks at major themes as writers search for imaginative forms to reconstruct their history and voice their identity. Going beyond the imposed legacy of history, Palestinian writers reclaim their loss and dispossession in miraculous words. The emergence of “Poetry of Resistance” in the 1950s and thereafter is a witness to the resilience of Palestinians inside Israel. Moreover, as Palestinian writing continues to flourish, it builds on early writing, rejecting the “nightmare of history.” Palestinian literature is at the heart of the Palestinian struggle.

Keywords: Palestinian literature, Poetry of Resistance, origins of Palestinian literature, 1948, 1967, Palestinian history and literature, occupation and exile

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Edward Said and Recent Orientalist Critiques

Tahrir Khalil Hamdi

Abstract

There have been many attempts in recent years to discredit Edward Said’s thesis of the “affiliation of knowledge with power” (1997: xlix) by those who argue that Orientalist scholarship represents genuine and accurate knowledge of the Arab/Islamic world. Said’s detractors claim that much of Orientalist scholarship has been “sympathetic” to the Orient and is free from any power motive. However, this article will attempt to show how all of these arguments fall apart when put to the test of reality, past and present, in literature, Orientalist scholarship and politics. After all the arguments of Bernard Lewis, Ibn Warraq and think tank and area experts, it is Said’s voice of humanism that drowns out all of his dissenters’ voices in this Orientalist war of words, which as Said believed, is “richly symptomatic of precisely what is denied” (1985: 91).

Keywords: Edward Said, Orientalism, power, imperialism, discourse, culture

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Bahrain’s Arrested Revolution

Stephen Zunes

Abstract

This article provides an overview and analysis of the 2011 pro-democracy struggle in Bahrain, focusing in particular on the role of strategic nonviolent action and the foreign policy of the United States. It argues that Bahrain’s progressive and pluralistic tradition would have made the possibilities of a democratic transition more promising than in many Arab states, but the ruthlessness and uncompromising posture of the government, combined with Saudi-led intervention and a refusal by the United States to support democratic forces, led to the movement’s suppression. The article also challenges exaggerated accounts of the sectarian dimension of the conflict and faults the United States for its ongoing support for the Bahraini regime as a major contributor to the failure of the pro-democracy struggle.

Keywords: nonviolent action, pro-democracy movements, repression, US policy, Arab Spring, arms

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Overcoming the Secular Suspicion? State Secularity and Its Impact on Societal Relations in Turkey and Egypt

Birol Baskan

Abstract

What conditions are the most conducive for religious and secular groups to overcome their mutual fears and suspicions towards each other? This article addresses this question through a comparative historical analysis of two major cases from the Middle East: Turkey and Egypt. The article argues that institutional differences in state-religion relations explain why Turkish religious groups, but not their Egyptian counter-parts, could better alleviate the fears and suspicions of the other secular groups. In summary, Turkey and Egypt instituted their state-religion relations in different ways while building their modern states and therefore entered the highly politicized environment of the 1970s under different state-religion relations. Institutional state-religion relations in Egypt have provided a venue for Islamic groups to Islamize the state and society using state power if necessary. This came at great cost, however. Religious groups in fact pushed further away the other societal groups, deepening their fears and suspicions. Institutional state-religion relations have not provided a venue for Islamic groups in Turkey to Islamize the state and society from top to bottom. Lacking state power to correct practices and norms deemed un-Islamic helped the Islamists and Islamic groups in the long run. Their relations with other societal groups have not deteriorated to the extent they have done in Egypt.

Keywords: Islam, democracy, religious groups, Turkey, Egypt, historical institutionalism

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The Roots and Causes of the 2011 Arab Uprisings

Kamal Eldin Osman Salih

Abstract

This research article attempts to scrutinize the nature and causes of the Arab uprisings which took people by surprise globally throughout 2011 and into 2012. The article argues that the repressive, violent nature of the Arab regimes and their suppression of individual liberties against a backdrop of ongoing corruption and deterioration of the economy have been among the major factors leading to the Arab revolts. In addition, the article attempts to answer the query: why were the two repressive regimes of Tunisia and Egypt so quick to come undone, whereas dismantling the Libyan regime took much longer? Finally, the article tries to develop a causation analysis as to why the Arab regimes of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, the Sultanate of Oman, and Sudan have not faced major political protest.

Keywords: Arab uprisings, security apparatus, liberal democracy, NATO, Muslim Brotherhood, protests

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BOOK REVIEWS

 

Miko Peled. The General’s Son: A Journey of an Israeli in Palestine

 

Paul Tabar, Greg Noble, and Scott Poynting. On Being Lebanese in Australia: Identity, Racism, and the Ethnic Field

 

BOOKS IN BRIEF

 

Alan Mikhail. Editor. Water and Sand: Environmental Histories of the Middle East and North Africa

 

Virginia Tilley. Editor. Beyond Occupation: Apartheid, Colonialism and International Law in the Occupied Palestinian Territories

 

James Petras. The Arab Revolt and the Imperialist Counterattack

 

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Arab Studies Quarterly 35/1 Winter 2013 Table of Contents and Article Abstracts

Table of Contents

Articles

To read the article abstract see below:

1.  Postcolonial Recycling of the Oriental Vampire in Habiby’s Saraya, The Ghoul’s Daughter and Mukherjee’s Jasmine

Ahmed Gamal

2.  Urbanization Dynamics in Egypt: Factors, Trends, Perspectives

Julia Zinkina and Andrey Korotayev

3.  Denys Johnson-Davies: The Translator Who Rushed in Where Angels Feared to Tread

Musa Al-Halool

4.  Regime Change and Arab Countries’ Lobbying in the United States

Sergey Kostyaev

Book Reviews

Nur Masalha. The Palestine Nakba: Decolonising History, Narrating the Subaltern, Reclaiming Memory

Paul Tabar and Jennifer Skulte-Ouaiss. Editors. Politics, Culture and the Lebanese Diaspora

Detroit Arab American Study Team. Citizenship and Crisis: Arab Detroit after 9/11

Books in Brief

Gonca Bayraktar and Senol Durgun. Islam and Politics

William Harris. Lebanon: A History, 600-2011

Guidelines for Authors

Subscriptions

Article Abstracts

1.  Postcolonial Recycling of the Oriental Vampire in Habiby’s Saraya, The Ghoul’s Daughter and Mukherjee’s Jasmine

 Ahmed Gamal 

Abstract: This article examines Emile Habiby’s Saraya, The Ghoul’s Daughter (1991) andBharati Mukherjee’s Jasmine (1989) as two postcolonial novels seeking to rewrite the history of Palestinianand Indian diaspora according to their respective myths of Oriental vampires. Habiby’s recycling ofthe Palestinian folktale of the ghoul and Mukherjee’s recuperation of the Hindu myth of Lord Shivaaim to spotlight the classical vampiric topoi of otherness, unspeakableness, foreignness, and border existences in colonial and postcolonial contexts. Postcolonial Gothic writing is thus shown to foreground gender, nationality, and ethnicity as sites of both power conflict and cultural exchange.

Adopting a counter-Orientalist approach, the study sheds light on the different strategies thesetwo postcolonial texts employ to deconstruct the demonic and ghostly constructions of Arabs and Indians.

This article seeks to examine how postcolonial texts profit from the mythical narratives of vampires to problematize the power relations between the colonizer and the colonized. The vampire tradition is accordingly inscribed and recycled according to the collective Oriental heritage to articulate the untold stories of the muffled Eastern subject. Drawing on the mythical narratives of the ghoul (ogre) in classical Arabic culture and old Arabic folktales and of Lord Shiva in the Hindu myth, this article compares the rewritings of the vampire topoi of otherness, unspeakableness, foreignness, and border existences in both Emile Habiby’s Saraya, The Ghoul’s Daughter (1991) and Bharati Mukherjee’s Jasmine (1989). The metamorphosis of Saraya into a laughing muse and Jasmine into a potent goddess can be taken to represent the liminal state of Dracula between life and death on the one hand and the convergence of cultures on the other hand. Where these two works differ principally is in the geographic location of this site of cultural interaction. Whereas Habiby (1922-1996), the Palestinian writer, traces the predicament of Arabs in Israel and the Palestinian diaspora, Mukherjee (1940-), the Indian American writer, writes of the potential synthesis of Indian and American culture in the context of globalization.

Keywords: postcolonial gothic, vampire, ghoul, Arabic folktale, Hindu myth, otherness

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2.  URBANIZATION DYNAMICS IN EGYPT:  FACTO RS, TRENDS, PERSPECTIVES

Julia Zinkina and Andrey Korotayev

Abstract: The articleanalyzes the specifics of urbanization dynamics in Egypt, which is noteworthyfor a number of reasons. First, there was a shift from the logistic trend in the 1970s, and the share of urban population stopped growing. The UN data analysis shows that such a shift usually occurs against the background of very serious economic difficulties (and other problems associated with them). However, the urban population proportion stopped growing in Egypt when the country was experiencing a period of exceedingly rapid economic growth. We find labor migration of unprecedented scale to be the main reason which engendered this seemingly paradoxical situation.

We further proceed to analyze the UN forecast on the dynamics of the Egyptian urban population  proportion up to 2050, which implies a return to the logistic trend and rapid growth of the urban population share, which is fraught with socio-political instability risks. However, we present data proving that the logistic urbanization trajectory is not inevitable for Egypt, and the destabilization risks connected with the rapid increase of urban population share are largely irrelevant to Egypt in the forecasted period.

Keywords: Egypt, urbanization, migration, economic growth, forecasts, sociopolitical Destabilization

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3,  Denys Johnson-Davies:  The Translator Who Rushed in Where Angels Feared to Tread

Musa Al-Halool

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to outline Denys Johnson-Davies’s translation career as told in his autobiography, give a general appreciation of his unparalleled role in translating and promoting Arabic literature in the English-speaking world, shed light on his adapting numerous Arabic folktales for children, and touch upon his translations of canonical Islamic texts. However, it would not be possible to fully appreciate his monumental contributions in this intercultural dialogue without examining, albeit briefly, some of the intractable odds against which he strove.

In other words, had he been a French- or German-English translator, his would have been a completely different story, and perhaps not worth being voluble about. To achieve this goal, I will highlight certain relevant incidents in his career that illustrate both his tireless efforts and his attachment to Arabic literature, Arab authors, and Arab customs, for it is through this “spiritual affinity” that Johnson-Davies fulfills Schlegel’s condition for a good authentic translation.

Keywords: Denys Johnson-Davies, Arabic literature in translation, intercultural dialogue, East-West literary relations

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4, Regime Change and Arab Countries’ Lobbying in the United States

Sergey Kostyaev

Abstract: In this article lobbying by several Arab countries in the United States is analyzed to answer two questions: What are the ramifications of a regime change for lobbying strategy in the United States? Does lobbying matter in securing US government support? First, the study demonstrates that regime change in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya has had no effect on their lobbying in the United States so far. The analysis of lobbying by countries which eschewed regime change— Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan—surprisingly comes to the same conclusion. Second, the ability of troubled regimes to peacefully control their own populace is more important for securing US support than lobbying.

Keywords: regime change, transition, interest groups, lobbying, Arab Spring

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2012

Past Issue Contents



Contents & Abstracts




Arab Studies Quarterly 34/4 01 Fall 2012 Articles

 

Articles

1.  Democracy Promotion and Abstracted Sovereignty 205

Dina Jadallah

Dina Jadallah is a PhD candidate at the School of Middle Eastern and North African Studies at the University of Arizona.

The United States usually presents itself in exceptional terms. In the last thirty years, it has presented itself as the beacon of democracy. As “leader of the free world,” the United States has taken upon itself the responsibility to spread (an implicitly-assumed) universally desired liberal democracy. While it uses, and has used, war—euphemized as intervention, the global war on terror, or various operations of freedom—the United States also relies on democracy promotion efforts that spread norms, procedures, and methods of pluralist governance. These include free and fair elections, universal adult suffrage, basic individual freedoms, free opposition parties, and rule of law, which ostensibly benefit all people. The narrative also insists that altruism is what drives US interest in seeing “American” values of freedom and “democratic peace” prevail in the international state system.

This article argues that claims of exceptionalism are crucial for constructing the myths necessary for sustaining and expanding American dominance over global capitalism and the international system of states. Democracy promotion is a means of constructing shared values and concepts, structures, procedures, and elites that subdue and channel mass popular demands arising from the socio-economic arena.

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2.  Continuity of Change in Turkish Foreign Policy under the JDP Government: The Cases of Bilateral Relations with Israel and Syria 230

Kilic Bugra Kanat

Kilic Bugra Kanat, Assistant Professor of Politics, Penn State University, Erie; Research Fellow, SETA Foundation at Washington DC; Moynihan Fellow, Moynihan Institute for Global Affairs, Syracuse, New York.

Turkish foreign policy has been a popular topic for those who study recent developments in Turkish politics as well as those of the Middle East.

These developments and new initiatives in the foreign policy realm, such as the refusal to allow coalition forces to deploy their troops from Turkish territory before the Second Gulf War, the fostering of ties with Middle Eastern countries, its participation and leadership in international organizations and initiatives, its pro-active diplomacy with neighboring countries, and its willingness to mediate and resolve disputes among the warring parties of the Middle East, have fascinated scholars of Turkish studies as well as foreign policy analysts. Most of these initiatives were innovative endeavors compared to more traditional Turkish foreign policy, whose important pillars include non-involvement and non-interference in regional conflicts, a cautious approach in its relations with neighboring countries, and foreign policy decision making with bureaucratic and military control. These changes that took place in the last ten years and the expansion of foreign policy endeavors of Turkish policy makers have paved the way for the emergence of new scholarship focusing on the JDP government, in particular its leadership, goals, ambitions and the impact of these factors on foreign policy formulation and implementation. Studies in this field have revealed different outcomes regarding the motivations of foreign policy makers, the causes of the change in foreign policy, and the process of change in the foreign policy realm.

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3.  Looking for Home in the Islamic Diaspora of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Azar Nafisi, and Khaled Hosseini 250

Rachel Blumenthal

Rachel Blumenthal is a PhD candidate at Northwestern University Department of English, Evanston, Illinois.

On November 8, 2007, Anglo-Dutch writer Ian Buruma delivered a lecture titled “Isllamist Radicalism in Europe.”[i] His claim: moderate Muslim thinkers are the key to diffusing a potentially explosive politics of radical religious separatism in Europe. A small but powerful minority of Islamic radicals resides in Europe, according to Buruma, and they remain an unassimilated and thus, dangerous force to be reckoned with. He cites the 2004 slaying of Dutch filmmaker, Theo van Gogh, as evidence of this Islamist radicalism. Van Gogh’s 2004 film Submission exposed the psychological and physical violence levied against women in Islamic societies, and it was in response to this production that Islamic-Dutch citizen, Mohammed Bouyeri murdered Van Gogh as retribution for his critique of Islam.[ii]

Buruma suggests two paths for suturing what he reads as an ever-growing divide between mainstream Europe (and the Western world at large) and its radical Islamic minority. The one lies with Ayaan Hirsi Ali (script-writer for Van Gogh’s Submission). A self-proclaimed ex-Muslim, Ali represents for Buruma the radical alternative to radical Islam—renunciation. She is, thus, not the “icon” he would select for keeping what he calls “non-violent Muslim minorities in favor of Western secular democracy.”[iii] Rather, he posits so-called moderate thinker Tariq Ramadan as the optimal symbol of moderate Islamic, pro-Western thought. Buruma argues that it is precisely Ramadan’s embodiment of “moderate” Islam that makes him a sound solution to the increasingly dangerous divide between mainstream Europe and its radical Islamic minority. Where Hirsi Ali is, for Buruma, a risky figure because she renounced Islam, Ramadan represents a “middle road,” a pragmatic alternative that encompasses both Orthodox Islam and a pro-Western politics. Buruma champions him as the salve for an ailing political/religious situation in Europe.

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Remembering Michael Suleiman—1934-2010

Michael Suleiman: A Man from Palestine and Kansas 265

Elaine C. Hagopian

Michael Suleiman and Arab American & Middle East Studies:  Memories of a Scholar, a Friend, and a Cheerleader 270

Barbara Aswad

Remembering Michael Suleiman 273

Lisa S. Majaj

Michael W. Suleiman (1934-2010) 277

Janice J. Terry

Book Review

Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Jane I. Smith, and Kathleen M. Moore.

Muslim Women in America: The Challenge of Islamic Identity Today 283

Books in Brief

Adania Shibli. We Are All Equally Far From Love 287

Hamid Dabashi. The Arab Spring: The End of Postcolonialism 287

Fevzi Bilgin. Political Liberalism in Muslim Societies 289

2011

Volume 33 Number 3 & 4

Guest Editor’s Note: Academic Freedom, Ideological Boundaries, and the Teaching of the Middle East 125
Tareq Ismael
Articles
A Brief History of Area Studies and International Studies 131
Hossein Khosrowjah
Contemporary Interdisciplinary Studies and the Ideology of Neoliberal Expansion 143
Terri Ginsberg
First Amendment Rights and the Trivialization of Work: The Ward Churchill
and Adrienne Anderson Cases at the University of Colorado 153
Julio Gonzales
Debbi Almontaser and the Problematics of Paranoid Politics 168
Lawrence Davidson
The Question of Palestine and the Subversion of Academic Freedom:
DePaul’s Denial of Tenure to Norman G. Finkelstein 179
Matthew Abraham
Who Loves Teaching? Free Speech and the Myth of the Academy as
a Place to Love and Be the Left 204
Yasmin Nair
A Case of Forbidding Academic Engagement of Muslim and Jewish Beliefs
about the Holy Land 217
Douglas Giles
The Deployment of “Anti-Semitism,” “Controversy,” and “Neutrality”
in Ginsberg v. NCSU 228
Terri Ginsberg
Sacked by Bard 244
Joel Kovel
Academic Freedom and Palestine: A Personal Account 256
Kristofer J. Petersen-Overton
Academic Freedom as a Fundamental Human Right in American
Jurisprudence and the Imposition of “Balance” on Academic Discourse
about the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict 268
Rima Najjar Kapitan
Book Reviews
Anthony Billingsley. Political Succession in the Arab World:
Constitutions, Family Loyalties, and Islam 282
Kevin Grisham
Marwan Kraidy. Reality Television and Arab Politics:
Contention in Public Life 282
Sahar Khamis
Books Received 2010-11
Guidelines for Authors 289

Volume 33 Number 2

Editorial Comment on the Popular Uprisings in the Arab World 76
Articles
Displaced Autobiography in Edward Said’s Out of Place and Fawaz Turki’s The Disinherited 79
Asaad Al-Saleh
Seeds of Change: Comparing State-Religion Relations in Qatar and Saudi Arabia 96
Birol Baskan and Steven Wright
Book Reviews
Bouthaina Shaaban. Voices Revealed: Arab Women Novelists, 1898-2000 112
Janice J. Terry
Amira El-Zein. Islam, Arabs, and the Intelligent World of the Jinn 114
Rebecca R. Williams
Books in Brief
J. K. Kanj. Children of Catastrophe: Journey from a Palestinian Refugee Camp to America 117
L. A. Cainkar. Homeland Insecurity: The Arab American and Muslim American Experience After 9/11 118
Guidelines for Authors 119

Volume 33 Number 1

Articles
The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Emergency Law, Trauma and Justice 4
Michael Humphrey
Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Women in the Muslim World 23
Jacqueline Ismael, Shereen Ismael, and Chris Langille
Success Against the Odds: Palestinian Female Students Outperform their Male Counterparts in Academic Achievement 44
Ibrahim Makkawi
Book Reviews
Samar Attar. Debunking the Myths of Colonization: The Arabs and Europe 62
Janice J. Terry
Lee Smith. The Strong Horse: Power, Politics, and the Clash of Arab Civilizations 65
T. Edward Donselman
Guidelines for Authors 70

2010

Volume 32 Number 4

In Memoriam: Michael Wadie Suleiman (1934-2010) 187
Arab Studies Quarterly Commemorates the Life of
Abbas Abdul-Karim Alnasrawi (1932-2009) 189
Articles
Canada and the Middle East Today: Electoral Politics and Foreign Policy 191
Donald Barry
State Power and the Constitution of the Individual: Racial Profiling of Arab Americans 218
Dina Jadallah and Laura el-Khoury
Review Essay
Patrick Seale. The Struggle for Arab Independence: Riad El-Solh and the Makers of the Modern Middle East 238
Elaine C. Hagopian
Book Reviews
Islah Jad. Nesa‘a ‘Ala Taqato‘ Toroq: Alharakat Alnasawia Alfelastenia Bayn Alwatania Wa Alelmania Wa Alhawia Alislamia 242
Awni Fares
Sean Foley. The Arab Gulf States: Beyond Islam and Oil 246
Fatemeh Shayan
Books in Brief
Joy Gordon. Invisible War: The United States and the Iraq Sanctions 249
Shahid M. Alam. Israeli Exceptionalism: The Destabilizing Logic of Zionism 250
Anne Marie Baylouny. Privatizing Welfare in the Middle East: Kin Mutual Aid Association in Jordan and Lebanon 251
Books Received 2009-10 252
Call for Papers 256

Volume 32 Number 3

Articles
Articulating Gender: Muslim Women Intellectuals in the Pre-modern Period 127
Omaima Abou-Bakr
“Al-tawteen”: The Implantation Problem as an Idiom of the Palestinian Presence in Post-Civil War Lebanon (1989-2005) 145
Daniel Meier
Review Essay
The Questionable Nature of Sovereignty in the Arab World
Gokhan Bacik. Hybrid Sovereignty in the Arab Middle East: The Cases of Kuwait, Jordan, and Iraq 163
Dina Jadallah
Book Reviews
Nubar Hovsepian. Palestinian State Formation: Education and the Construction of National Identity 171
André Elias Mazawi
Jamal R. Nassar. Globalization and Terrorism: The Migration of Dreams and Nightmares 173
Anthony R. DiMaggio
Books in Brief
Christopher Wise and Paul James. Editors. Being Arab: Arabism and the Politics of Recognition 177
Roberto Mazza. Jerusalem: From the Ottomans to the British 178
Latif Wahid. Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in the Middle East 179
Nadje Al-Ali and Nicola Pratt. Editors. Women and War in the Middle East: Transnational Perspectives 180

Volume 32 Number 2

Articles
Decrypting the Palestinian Political Crisis. Old Strategies Against New Enemies: Chile 1970-73, Palestine 2006-09 73
Emilio Dabed
Invisibility, Impossibility: The Reuse of Voltaire’s Candide in Emile Habiby’s Sa’eed the Pessoptimist 92
Ahmad Harb
Book Reviews
Stefan August Lutgenau. Editor. Human Rights and a Middle East Peace Process: Analyses and Case Studies from a New Perspective 107
Noura Erakat
Randa Jarrar. A Map of Home 109
Dina Jadallah
Fadwa El Guindi. By Noon Prayer: The Rhythm of Islam 113
Barbara Aswad
Books in Brief
Yasmin Husein Al-Jawaheri. Women in Iraq: The Gender Impact of International Sanctions 117
Kais M. Firro. Metamorphosis of the Nation (al-Umma): The Rise of Arabism and Minorities in Syria and Lebanon, 1850-1940 118
P. R. Kumaraswamy. Editor. Caught in Crossfire: Civilians in Conflicts in the Middle East 119
Ahmed Mansour. Inside Fallujah: The Unembedded Story 120

Volume 32 Number 1

Editor’s Note 5
Articles
The Kitab al-Asrar: An Alchemy Manual in Tenth-Century Persia 6
Gail Taylor
Revisiting Saddam Hussein’s Political Language: The Sources and Roles of Conspiracy Theories 28
Matthew Gray
Review Essay
Benny Morris. One State, Two States: Resolving the Israel/Palestine Conflict 47
Dina Jadallah
Book Reviews
Ra’anan Cohen. Editor. Strangers in Their Homeland: A Critical Study of Israel’s Arab Citizens 52
Ismael Abu-Saad
Jennifer Heath. Editor. The Veil: Women Writers on Its History, Lore, and Politics 55
Fadwa El Guindi
Books in Brief
Salim Tamari. Editor. Mountains Against the Sea: Essays on Palestinian Society and Culture 61
Laura Guazzone and Daniela Pioppi. Editors. The Arab State and Neo-Liberal Globalization: The Restructuring of State Power in the Middle East 62
Editor’s Essay on Ghada Hashem Talhami’s Palestine in the Egyptian Press 63

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